Heraklio is close to the ruins of the palace of Knossos, the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete which was excavated and restored by archeologist Arthur Evans and which in Minoan times was the biggest centre of population on Crete.

The present city of Heraklio was founded in 824 AD by the Saracens (an Arabic Muslim people). They built a moat around the city for protection, and named the city andaq (Khandak), meaning 'moat'. The Saracens allowed the port to be used as a safe haven for pirates, much to the annoyance of the nearby Byzantine Empire. In 961, the Byzantines attacked and defeated the city, slaughtered the Saracens, looted the city, and burned it to the ground. They remained in control of the rebuilt Khandak for the next 243 years.

 In 1204, the city was bought by the Venetians as part of a complicated political deal. The Venetians improved on the ditch by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40m thick, with 7 bastions, and a fortress, Koules, in the harbour. The name Khandak became Candia in Italian. The city retained the name of Candia for centuries, and the whole island of Crete was often called Candia as a result. During Venetian rule, the Greek population of Crete was exposed to Renaissance culture.

 After the Venetians came the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. They besieged the city for 22 years in a bloody war in which 30,000 Cretans and 120,000 Turks died. The Venetians eventually handed it over in 1669.

 The city became independent with the withdrawal of the Ottomans in 1898, then part of the 1908 Cretan state, and then it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Greece in 1913. Upon its independence it was renamed to 'Heraklion', meaning City of Heracles (Hercules), after the port of Heracleum which had existed somewhere in the locality in Roman times.

 The biggest monument of the city is the Venetian medieval fortress Rocca al Mare (also known as Koules) located on the port. Heraklion is an important shipping port and ferry dock. The public can take ferries and boats from Heraklion to a multitude of destinations including Thira, Rhodes, Egypt, Haifa and mainland Greece.

 Welcome to Heraklio, a city that blends its rich past into its modern yet unique present.


Knossos was undeniably the capital of Minoan Crete. It is grander, more complex, and more flamboyant than any of the other palaces known to us, and it is located about twenty minutes south of the modern port town of Iraklio.

Knossos was inhabited for several thousand years, beginning with a neolithic settlement sometime in the seventh millennium BC, and was abandoned after its destruction in 1375 BC which marked the end of Minoan civilization. The first palace on the low hill beside the Krairatos river was built around 1900 BC on the ruins of previous settlements. It was destroyed for the first time along with the other Protopalatial palaces around Crete at 1700 BC, probably by a large earthquake or foreign invaders. It was immediately rebuilt to an even more elaborate complex and until its abandonment was damaged several times during earthquakes, invasions, and in 1450 BC by the colossal volcanic eruption of Thera, and the invasion of Mycenaeans who used it as their capital as they ruled the island of Crete until 1375 BC.

Knossos PlanArthur Evans, the British Archaeologist who excavated the site in 1900 AD restored large parts of the palace in a way that it is possible today to appreciate the grandeur and complexity of a structure that evolved over several millennia and grew to occupy about 20,000 square meters. Walking through its complex multi-storied buildings one can comprehend why the palace of Knossos was associated with the mythological labyrinth.

According to Greek mythology, the palace was designed by famed architect Dedalos with such complexity that no one placed in it could ever find its exit. King Minos who commissioned the palace then kept the architect prisoner to ensure that he would not reveal the palace plan to anyone. Dedalos, who was a great inventor, built two sets of wings so he and his son Ikaros could fly off the island, and so they did. On their way out, Dedalos warned his son not to fly too close to the sun because the wax that held the wings together would melt. In a tragic turn of events, during their escape Ikaros, young and impulsive as he was, flew higher and higher until the sun rays dismantled his wings and the young boy fell to his death in the Aegean sea. The Labyrinth was the dwelling of the Minotaur in Greek mythology, and many associate the palace of Knossos with the legend of Theseus killing the Minotaur.

Picture of the Throne RoomThe Greek myth associated with the palace about Theseus and the Minotaur is fascinating, but walking around the ruins of Knossos today it is hard to imagine it to be a place of torment and death. Instead, the palace radiates with joyous exuberance through the elaborate architectural planes and volumes that were clustered around the central courtyard over time. The elegant wall frescoes which decorated the walls speak of a people who approached the subtleties of life and the splendor of nature with a joyous disposition.

For the visitor today, the area around the ramp which leads to the main palace, immediately exposes the rich strata of ruins that span millennia. To the left of the entrance ramp three large kouloures in the shape of large round pits reveal in their deep bottom the remains of Prepalatial building ruins. The palace of Knossos was the center of administration of the entire island during Minoan times, and its position as such allowed for unprecedented growth and prosperity as witnessed by the plethora of storage magazines, workshops, and wall paintings. The Throne room with its gypsum throne and benches to accommodate sixteen persons, the central courtyard, and the theater, along with the royal chambers paint a portrait of Knossos as a forum of elaborate rituals and extraordinary historical occurrences.

The restorations performed by Evans have been criticized as inaccurate, and there is a feeling that many of the details were reconstituted (to use Evans' term) utilizing at best "educated guesses". For the visitor however, the restorations render the incomprehensible strata of ruins along with their past grandeur a bit more obvious, and bring the majesty of Minoan life at the palace a little closer.

Picture of the Koulouras interior Photograph of the Hipostyle Hall in Knossos. Picture of the Grand Staircase and the shield wall paintings.
The ruins of a prepalatial building at the bottom of one the Koulouras. Picture of Knossos Palace.
Looking NE towards the Hypostyle Hall (or Customs House).
The Knossos Grand Staircase leading to the royal chambers. The Shield frescoes are visible behind the characteristic Minoan columns.
Picture of the Hall of the Double Axes Picture of storage magazines at Knossos Picture of irrigation drain of the palace of Knossos
The columns supporting the portico of the Hall of the Double Axes. Storage Magazine of the West wing with pithoi. Irrigation drain at Knossos.

Knossos Artifacts at the Heraklion Museum

Picture of Bull's head from Knossos Picture of the Snake Goddess Picture of the Dancing girl fresco
Bull's Head
Found at the temple repository.
The Snake Goddess.
Faience figurine. Found at the temple repository at Knossos.
Dancing girl fresco. From the Queen's megaron at Knossos.
Picture of Relief wall painting of Bull's head Picture of Bull sports from Knossos
Relief wall painting of Bull's head. From the West Bastion of Knossos Palace. Bull Games (Taurokatharpsia). From a room at the East wing of Knossos palace. Dolphins wall painting. From the Queen's megaron at the palace of Knossos.

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